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Risk and cycling

General articles

An introduction to the objective risk assessment of cycling

Child cyclist head injuries in England: the wider context

Commentary on the statistics

How safe is cycling? An informative quiz  

Risk compensation  

An explanation of the mechanism whereby safety equipment can sometimes lead to people acting less safely

Safety in numbers

How cycling is safer the more people who cycle

Safety in numbers in Australia

Robinson DL, 2005

Safety in numbers applies in Australia too, but has been compromised by helmet laws

Why are Dutch cyclists more likely to be injured if they wear helmets?

Most Dutch cyclists don't wear helmets, but 13% of hospitalised cyclists do. Why?

Published papers

Assessing the actual risks faced by cyclists

Wardlaw MJ 2002. Traffic Engineering + Control: Dec 2002 p352-356

Benefits of shift from car to active transport  

Rabl A, de Nazelle A. Transport Policy, 2011.

The risk of fatal accidents is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the health benefit of cycling. An analysis of the uncertainties shows that the general conclusion about the order of magnitude of these effects is robust.

Risk compensation & helmet wearing  

Debate in Injury Prevention, 2001

The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use  

Rojas-Rueda D, de_Nazelle A, Tainio M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. BMJ 2011; 343:d4521

The health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks by 77 to 1, in a city where few people wear helmets.

Three lessons for a better cycling future  

Wardlaw M, BMJ 23 December 2000.

Thought-provoking insights into helmets, safety, segregation.


Head injuries and cycling safety in France

The data for France

How common is head injury when cycling?

The data for England

Injuries to cyclists in the Netherlands

Cycling in the Netherlands is safer than in other countries but helmeted cyclists are more likely to be injured.

Relative risk in cycling

How cycling compares with other common activities.

Relative risk of head injury

How cycling compares with other common activities

See also