The case-control studies below are those that have been selected by meta analyses as representing the strongest evidence in favour of cycle helmet effectiveness.
Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC. New England Journal of Medicine, 1989 v320 n21 p1361-7. 1989.
A case-control study on the effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing facial injury
Thompson DC, Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. American Journal of Public Health, 1990; 80(12):1471-1474. 1990.
Spaite DW, Murphy M, Criss EA, Valenzuela TD, Meislin HW. Journal of Trauma, 1991 Nov;31(11):1510-6.. 1991.
Jacobson GA, Blizzard L, Dwyer T. Austr NZ J Public Health, 1998 Jun;22(4):451-5.. 1998.
Wasserman RC, Waller JA, Monty MJ, Emery AB, Robinson DR. American Journal of Public Health, 1988 Sep;78(9):1220-1. 1988.
Usually cited as a pro-helmet paper, nevertheless helmet wearers were 7 times more likely to have hit their heads than non-wearers.
Dorsch MM, Woodward AJ, Somers RL. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1987 Jun;19(3):183-90. 1987.
Thomas S, Acton CH, Nixon J, Battistutta D, Pitt WR, Clark R. BMJ, 1994;308:173-176. 1994.
Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS.. JAMA, 1996 Dec 25;276(24):1968-73. 1996.
Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing serious facial injury
Thompson DC, Nunn ME, Thompson RS, Rivara FP. JAMA, 1996a;276(24):1974-1975. 1996.
Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury
Rivara FP, Thompson DC, Thompson RS. Injury Prevention, 1997 3: 110-114. 1997.
Linn S, Smith D, Sheps S. Injury Prevention, 1998;4:122-125. 1998.
Wasserman RC, Buccini RV. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1990 Jan-Feb;18(1):96-7. 1990.
Shafi S, Gilbert JC, Loghmanee F, Allen JE, Caty MG, Glick PL, Carden S, Azizhan RG. J Paediatric Surgery, 1998 Feb;33(2):317-21. 1998.
Maimaris C, Summers CL, Browning C, Palmer CR. BMJ, 1994 Jun 11;308(6943):1537-40. 1994.
McDermott FT, Lane JC, Brazenore GA, Debney EA. Journal of Trauma, 1993; 34(6):834-845. 1993.
Finvers KA, Strother RT, Mohtadi N. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1996 Apr;6(2):102-7. 1996.
Walter SR, Olivier J, Churches T, Grzebieta R.. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2011 Nov;43(6):2064-71. 2011.
This study claims to be the last word in showing that helmet laws are beneficial.
The meta analyses that follow are not research papers in their own right, but reviews of other papers. The first two meta analyses examine the same 16 case-control studies. The Cochrane Review examines a subset of 7 of the same studies. None of the meta analyses considers any papers not supportive of helmet use.
Attewell RG, Glase K, McFadden M. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2001;33(3):345-352
Towner, Dowswell, Burkes, Dickinson & Hayes. Department for Transport, London, November 2002.
Thompson RS, Rivara FP & Thompson DC. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library.
This review is not independent, being dominated by the authors' own research.